Saint Mark Eugenikos, Archbishop of Ephesus, was a stalwart defender of Orthodoxy at the Council of Florence. He would not agree to a union with Rome which was based on theological compromise and political expediency (the Byzantine Emperor was seeking military assistance from the West against the Moslems who were drawing ever closer to Constantinople). St Mark countered the arguments of his opponents, drawing from the well of pure theology, and the teachings of the holy Fathers. When the members of his own delegation tried to pressure him into accepting the Union he replied, “There can be no compromise in matters of the Orthodox Faith.”
Although the members of the Orthodox delegation signed the Tomos of Union, St Mark was the only one who refused to do so. When he returned from Florence, St Mark urged the inhabitants of Constantinople to repudiate the dishonorable document of union. He died in 1457 at the age of fifty-two, admired and honored by all.
Adapted from The Life of Saint Mark of Ephesus in Greek on: www.impantokratoros.gr
St. Mark, was born Emanuel of pious parents in 1392 in the queen of cities, Constantinople. His father was called George and was the Chief Justice of Sakellion and deacon of the Great Church, and his mother was Maria, the daughter of the pious doctor Luka.
Both parents tried and succeeded in raising little Emmanuel in the teachings and upbringing of the Lord. But the death of their father left him and his younger brother John orphans at a tender age.
The saint learned his first letters from his father George, who had a famous private school. After the death of his father, his mother sent him to continue his studies with the most famous teachers of the time, John Chortasmenos (later Metropolitan Ignatius of Selymbria) and the mathematician and philosopher George Gemiston Plithona. Among his classmates was the later sworn enemy Bessarion the Cardinal.
Teacher and Monk
When the young Emmanuel completed his studies he assumed the administration of the patristic school and soon was recognized as the brightest teacher of the declining city. Among his students who later excelled were George Gennadius Scholarius, the first Patriarch following the fall of the city, Theodore Agallianus, Theophanus, Metropolitan of Midia and his brother John Eugenikos.
The divine love however, did not allow Emmanuel to be carried away by the most promising teaching career. Not even the very friendly relationship with the emperor stopped him from denying the world and fleeing to the island of Pringiponison (princely island) Andigoni close to the famous ascetic Symeon. There he remained in a spiritual struggle for two years and then, after the Turkish assaults on the islands, he came with his elder to the fabulous monastery of St George of Magganon, in Constantinople.
Monk Mark continued in his new confession enduring the tough ascetic life. In the monastery of Magganon, St. Mark composed many works and almost all of the more than 100 works, are saved to this day. Especially important are the works he wrote against the Latin leaning rivals of St. Gregory Palamas whom he greatly respected as his model. In this monastery, St. Mark was tonsured to the priesthood, after being pressured to do so, because he thought of himself as unworthy of such a high calling. Soon though he acquired such great spiritual fame, that many clerics and lay people wrote to him requesting his opinion on different topics.
At the Synod of Ferraras
In 1436, even though still a Hieromonk, the Patriarch of Alexandria named him as his representative at the convened synod on the Union of Churches. The same year Emperor John Paleologos forced him to accept the throne of Metropolitan of Ephesus which had become vacant that year.
The emperor showed his great appreciation for St. Mark, by naming him General Exarch of the Synod. Therefore, the saint was forced to follow the Patriarch and the rest of the representatives to Italy.
St. Mark went to the synod with the best intentions and demonstrated his conciliatory stance with the speech he composed for the Pope, even before the start of the proceedings of the Ferrara Synod. Some Orthodox representatives, even criticized Mark for his conciliatory stance in the dialogue with Cardinal Cesarini and demanded that from then on the Metropolitan Bessarion of Nicea should speak instead.
The first topic of discussion was on purgatory. Bessarion feeling not capable of speaking (due to his inadequate theological training), let Mark to speak instead for the Orthodox, who then expressed four points of disagreement on the topic.
The crystal clear Orthodox views as presented by our saint, greatly pleased the emperor who looked towards Mark as the one Orthodox theologian who could easily answer the arguments of the Papists. But the theologically inadequate byzantine emperor was hopeful that the Orthodox views would prevail, not knowing that the papists would have insisted without budging from their errors. For this reason, when the emperor saw that the irrational persistence of the Latins would sink his political agenda- namely the union of the Churches along with the assistance to confront the Turks- he began to pressure the Orthodox to follow a milder and more yielding way.
The Latins began to apply their known tactics of whisperings, lies and pressures and during that time they distributed in Ferrara, hundreds of leaflets which contained 54 seemingly heretical (non-Latin) Orthodox practices! Seeing that the situation was worsening against the Orthodox, two of the sanctioning members of the Byzantine representation, Metropolitan Anthony of Iraklia, first ranking Metropolitan to the Ecumenical throne, and John the brother of Saint Mark, tried to flee from Ferrara, but were impeded by the emperor. Because John was being accompanied by his brother to the harbor, the emperor and the Patriarch fearing other attempts at fleeing, in agreement with the papists, they transferred the Synod from Ferrara which was close to the sea, to Florence.
When the proceedings of the synod re-commenced, Saint Mark, the metropolitan from Ephesus, was the main speaker for the Orthodox. However the Saint’s responses and the reversals by the Latin false believers caused the wrath of the Latin leaning Orthodox, who with the silent consent and tolerance of the emperor, tried to overcome Saint Mark, by spreading rumors that he had gone mad. During one of the meetings of the Orthodox representatives, when the Metropolitan from Ephesus referred to the papists as “heretics”, the Metropolitan of Lacedaemon and of Mytilini insulted the Saint and tried to hit him.
Mark of Ephesus will not sign
The Saint ascertaining that all his attempts to persuade the Orthodox not to proceed towards Union- thus becoming victims of the papists- were in vain, stopped taking an active part in the proceedings of the synod.
Finally on the 5 July 1439, the union was endorsed and as reported by Syropoulos, most of the Orthodox representatives signed against their will, being fearful of the emperor. When the Pope asked if Mark had also signed, he received a negative response. To this the Pope remarked, “Well, we have accomplished nothing”. The arrogant and despotic Pope shamelessly asked the undecided byzantine emperor to send Mark to him to be judged in front of the Synodal Court, but fortunately the emperor refused.
Later on though, the emperor begged Mark, having first received oral assurances from the Pope on his safety, that he present himself in front of the Pope to explain his position. Mark obeying the emperor’s order went to the Pope. In vain the arch-heretic of the West tried to force him to accept the unseemly union. When he saw that Mark remained immovable in his views, he reverted to abuses and threatened to declare him a heretic. However, St Mark was unintimidated and responded with boldness saying, “the participants of the synod pass judgment on the unconvinced of the Church, but praise the ones that stood against her, yet those that preach of her and struggle for her, they call them heretics. I however do not preach my own beliefs nor have I innovated anything, nor do I stand for some strange dogma or rule but I abide to her extreme glory”.
The people welcome Mark
Following the treasonous union at Ferraras-Florence, the Byzantines left Italy to return to the besieged city. The emperor received St. Mark on the imperial ship and after a trip of three and a half months, they finally arrived at Constantinople. There the people received them with adverse feelings and denounced those that signed the union but welcomed and honoured our saint. Then, as the greco-latin bishop Joseph of Methonis described, “The one of Ephesus saw the multitudes praising him for not signing and the crowd kneeled before him as if he were like Moses and Aaron, praising him and calling him a saint.”
The simple people of God looked at St. Mark as the lone hierarch who had the courage and capability to protect his Orthodox faith. They were already aware that quite a few who signed the union were bribed by the pope, while the hands of St. Mark were clean. When the emperor decided to fill the Patriarchal throne, he sent representatives to St. Mark asking him to accept the high honour of the Patriarch, but he did not accept.
The imprisonment of the Saint in Limnos
On the 4th of May in 1440, Saint Mark was forced to flee from the Royal City back to his see in Ephesus because his life was in danger. Ephesus at that time was already occupied under the Turks. Having shepherded for a short while his blessed flock, he was forced again, now due to the Turks and unionists, to leave Ephesus and board a ship destined for the Holy Mountain, where he decided to live the rest of his life. However when the ship made a stop at Limnos, the Saint was recognized and arrested under imperial order and imprisoned there for two years. During his period of imprisonment, he suffered greatly, but as he wrote to the Hieromonk Theophanis of Evia, “The word of God and the power of truth cannot be tied down, instead it proceeds and prospers, and most of the brothers, encouraged by my exile, keep watch against the scamps and transgressors of the true faith.”
From Limnos, the Saint sent his famous encyclical epistle for all Orthodox people around the world and those who lived on the islands. With this, he severely rebuked those Orthodox who accepted the union and with uncompromising facts proved that the Latins are innovators. Because of this he says, “As they are heretics, we turned ourselves away and for this we separated from them.” The Saint then invites the believers to avoid the unionists because they are “false apostles and deceitful servants”.
Continuation of the struggle from the Magganon monastery
After he was released from prison, Saint Mark, because of his sickness, could not withdraw to the Holy Mountain, but returned to the monastery in Constantinople where he was received by the faithful people with honour as a saint and confessor. From the monastery of St. George of Magannon, the new confessor directed the struggle against the unionists, writing letters to the monks and clerics, encouraging them to hold onto the true faith and not to cooperate with the unionists.
Suffering the pressures of persecutions, and scorn, the state of health of the holy father worsened, so that on the 23rd of June in 1444, having called by his side his spiritual children and passed on the leadership of the anti-union struggle to George Scholarius, he departed to the Lord at the age of 52.
Honours for the Saint after his repose
The faithful people of the Lord, now orphaned, mourned greatly for the loss of their spiritual father. George Scollarius gave a eulogy during which he recalled among other things about the righteous one, “as a cleric he excelled, as hierarch he shined, and suffered for the Church, so that she will be seen with the highest possible stability in her passing on . . . now the naked soul of blessedness which is well recognized and received, here he studied the life in Christ and emulated the holy teachers of the faith so that he may always be as righteous as them.” The spiritual fruit that the saint bore are his two holy students the Patriarchs of Constantinople Gennadius and Dionysius.
Immediately following his holy repose, Mark was honoured as saint and confessor.
Thus his contemporary and implacable enemy, Joseph the uniate bishop of Methonis testified with pain saying, “Among many and divers, even the one called Palamas and Mark of Ephesus, were inundated with glorious words by the people. Although deplete of any virtue and holiness, but because they spoke and wrote against the Latins, you glorify and praise them, you depict them with icons, and with feasts you keep them and venerate them as saints.”
The first service in honour of the saint was given by his brother John, the philosopher. In the beginning he was commemorated on June 23, but later it was changed to January 19, the day the relics of the saint were transferred to the monastery of Saint Lazarus in Galata. The struggles of Saint Mark as well as of his student Gennadius were recognized and justified by the great synod of Constantinople that was concluded in 1484 when their names were recorded as holy fathers in the Synodicon of Orthodoxy.
Holy Saint Mark pray unto God for us!